If American conservatism means anything, then, it means the things found at the beginning of America, when it became a nation. The classics teach us that forming political bonds is natural to people, written in their nature, stemming from the divine gift they have of speech and reason. This means in turn that the Declaration of Independence, where the final causes of our nation are stated, and the Constitution of the United States, where the form of government is established, are the original things. These documents were written by people who were friends and who understood the documents to pursue the same ends. Taken together they are the longest surviving things of their kind, and under their domain our country spread across a continent and became the strongest nation on earth, the bastion of freedom. These documents do not appeal to all conservatives, but I argue that they should, both for their age and for their worthiness.
Prime Minister Trudeau was adamant about the inclusion of the in the patriation process. This Charter was intended to replace the Canadian Bill of Rights (a federal statute rather than a constitutional document), which was limited in scope and easily amendable. The Charter granted new power to the courts to protect certain political and civil rights of Canadians with respect to the policies and actions of all levels of government. The rights and freedoms to be enshrined in the Charter included: fundamental freedoms; democratic rights; mobility rights; legal rights; equality rights; language rights; and minority language education rights. The also greatly expanded the scope of judicial review, with respect to the guarantee of rights and the role of judges in enforcing them.
This president’s failure – or president’s failure – to honor his constitutional duty to execute the laws faithfully is not a partisan issue. The fact that presidents from both parties violate this duty is cause not for solace. It is cause for even greater alarm, because it guarantees that presidents from both parties will replicate and even surpass the abuses of their predecessors as payback for past injustices. The result is that democracy and freedom will suffer no matter who occupies the Oval Office.
In the first days after the Revolution, the military institutionalized thesystem it would need to maintain control. A new constitution was drawn up, andsubsequent Institutional Acts would address resistance with new mechanisms ofrepression. Authority was defined as coming not from the people but from the defacto exercise of power, although they claimed that their move to power wasmotivated by the need to redirect Brazil away from the communist path, back todemocracy (democratization through authoritarianism). Institutional Act #1 wasdesigned to give the new Executive the power it needed to carry out the "'economic,financial, political, and moral reconstruction of Brazil.' The objective was'restoration of internal order and the international prestige of our country.'"(Skidmore, 1988). In this initial stage the military sought to prove to theU.S. and international aid agencies that Brazil was once again committed to a "freeworld" economy.
IAS Mains Essay Paper: Tips, Topics, Questions, Practice
Confederation was an innovation to cope with the major constitutional and economic problems of the day. With the building of the railways, the adoption of free trade by the British (meaning that Canada no longer enjoyed preferential access to Commonwealth markets for its goods), and the potential loss of lands to the Americans, the Canadian colonies sought a broader political union to facilitate their development and protect their shared interests. Also, the deterioration of Canada-US relations coupled with the proximity of British North America to the United States placed the colonies in jeopardy; they often bore the brunt of American antagonisms toward the British. At the same time, Britain had reduced its commitment to Imperial defence, based on its reduced involvement in colonial economic affairs. Further, the legislative union of the two Canadas (Upper and Lower) had not created a stable political system.